Working drawings and specifications are the main sources of information
for supervisors and technicians responsible for the actual construction.
The construction working drawing gives a complete graphic description
of the structure to be erected and the construction method to be followed.
A set of working drawings
includes both general and
detail drawings. General
drawings consist of plans and
elevations; detail drawings
consist of sections and detail
A site plan (also called a plot
· Property lines and
· Contours and profiles.
· Building lines.
· Locations of structures to
· Existing structures.
· Finished grades.
· Existing and new utilities
(such as sewer, water, and
Figure 1-5, page 1-5, shows a
typical site plan. Appropriate
outlines show the location of
each building. The new facility
can be located by referring to
the schedule of facilities on
the plan. The site plan has a
north-pointing arrow to
indicate site north—not
magnetic north. Each facility
has a number (or code letter)
to identify it in the schedule of
facilities. The contour lines
show the elevation of the earth
surfaces. (All points on a contour have the same elevation.)
Distances are given between principal details and reference lines. (The
coordinate reference lines on the figure are centerlines of the roads
surrounding the area.) All distances in a plan view simply give the horizontal
measurement between two points; they do not show terrain irregularities.
(The sizes of proposed facilities are given in the schedule of facilities.)
Examine the site plan shown in Figure 1-5 to see what information can
be obtained from it. For example, the contour lines show that the ground
surface of the site area slopes. The location and identification of each
facility are given. Most of the facilities are spaced at least 60 feet
apart, but the library (facility No. 3) and the recreation building (facility
No. 4) are only 15 feet apart. The library is the smallest of the four
buildings and is closest to the road- the east wall of the library is
20 feet from the centerline of the road, while the other buildings are
30 or 60 feet from the centerline.
Elevations are drawings that
show the front, rear, or side
view of a building or
structure. Sample elevation
views are given in Figure 1-6,
page 1-6. Construction
materials may be shown on
the elevation. The ground
level (called the grade)
surrounding the structure
may also be shown. When
more than one view is shown
on a drawing sheet, each
view is given a title. If any
view has a scale different
from that shown in the title
block, the scale is given
beneath the title of that view.
The centerline symbol of
alternate long and short
dashes shows finished floor
lines The hidden line symbol
of short, evenly spaced
dashes shows foundations
below the grade line.
Note that Figure 1-6 shows
the footings are below grade.
Elevations show the locations and types of doors and windows. Each different
type of window
shown in the elevations is marked; the three types of windows shown here
are marked W-1, W-2,
and W-3. These identifying marks refer to a particular size of window
whose dimensions are given
in a table known as the window schedule. In some cases, rough opening
dimensions of windows
are given on the drawing. Note that the building shown here has two double
doors on each side
and a double door at each end. The elevation also shows that at the end
of the building with the
loading platform, the door is at the level of the stage floor; all the
other doors are at grade level.
A floor plan is a cross-sectional view of a building. The horizontal
cut crosses all openings
regardless of their height from the floor. The development of a floor
plan is shown in Figure 1-7,
A floor plan may show, among other things, the outside shape of the building;
size, and shape of the rooms; the type of material and the length, thickness,
and character of the
building walls at a particular floor; the type, width, and location of
the doors and windows; the
types and locations of utility installations; and the location of stairways.
A typical floor plan is
shown in Figure 1-8, pages 1-8 and 1-9.
As you read the floor plan in Figure 1-8, note the features of the recreation
building. The lines
with small circles show wiring for electrical outlets; appropriate symbols
show the plumbing
fixtures. These features are important to the carpenter from the standpoint
He may have to make special provisions, at various stages of construction,
for the placement of
electrical or plumbing fixtures. Installation of these fixtures should
be coordinated at the
appropriate time with the electrician, plumber, and foreman.
As you examine the floor plan, note that the interior of the building
will consist of an auditorium,
a lobby with a post exchange (PX) counter, a men's toilet, a women's toilet,
a projection room on a
second level above the lobby, two dressing rooms, and a stage. The stage
may not be apparent but,
by noting the steps adjacent to each dressing room, it can be seen that
there is a change in
elevation. (The elevation view, shown in Figure 1-6 shows the stage and
Note that on the floor plan (Figure 1-8, pages 1-8 and 1-9) all building
entrance and exit doors are
the same type (1D) and all windows are the double-hung type. All interior
single doors are the
same (2D), and two double doors (3D) open into the lobby from the auditorium.
room will be reached via a 15-riser stairway located in a 12- x 18-foot
room. Entrance to this room
will be from the auditorium through a single door opening into the room.
At the top of the
stairway, a single door opens into the projection room. The wall of the
projection room that faces
the stage (inside wall) has three openings. Note that no windows are shown
for the side of the
building at the second level where the projection room is located, but
windows are shown at the