After the foundation is built and the batter boards are removed,
the carpenter builds the framework. The framework consists of beams, trusses,
walls and partitions, flooring, ceilings, sheathing and siding, stairways,
roof framing and coverings (Chapter 7), and doors and windows (Chapter
8). This chapter familiarizes the carpenter with materials, tools, and
techniques used to build the framework.
TYPES OF FRAMING
Framing consists of light, heavy, and expedient framing.
There are three principal types of framing for light structures: western,
balloon, and braced. Figure 6-1, page 6-2, illustrates these types of
framing and specifies the nomenclature and location of the various members.
Light framing is used in barracks, bathhouses, and administration buildings.
Figure 6-2, page 6-3, shows some details of a 20-foot wide building (such
as ground level, window openings, braces, and splices) and labels the
Much of light framing can be done in staging areas while staking out,
squaring, and floor framing is being done. Subflooring can begin when
a portion of the floor joists has been laid. The better-skilled men should
construct the frame, and with good coordination, a large force of men
can be kept busy during framing.
The western or platform frame (Figure 6-1, 1) is used extensively in
military construction. It is similar to the braced frame, but has boxed-sill
construction at each floor line. Also note that cross bridging is used
between the joists and bridging is used between the studs. The platform
frame is preferred for one-story structures since it permits both the
bearing and nonbearing walls (which are supported by the joist) to settle
The balloon frame (Figure 6-1, 2) is a widely used type of light framing.
The major difference between balloon and braced framing in a multistory
building is that in balloon framing the studs run the full length, from
sill to rafters. It is customary for second-floor joists to rest on a
1- x 4-inch ribbon that has been set into the studs. The balloon frame
is less rigid than a braced frame.
A braced frame (Figure 6-1, 3) is much more rigid than a balloon frame.
Exterior studs extend only between floors and are topped by girts that
form a sill for the joists of the succeeding floor. Girts are usually
4 x 6 inches. With the exception of studs, braced frame members are heavier
than those in balloon framing. Sills and corner posts are customarily
4 x 6 inches. Unlike the studs, corner posts extend from sill to plate.
Knee braces, usually 2 x 4 inches, are placed diagonally against each
side of the corner posts. Interior studding for braced frames is the same
as for balloon-frame construction.
Heavy-frame buildings are more permanent, and are normally used for
warehouses and shops. Heavy framing is seldom used in TO construction.
Figure 6-3, page 6-4, shows the details of heavy framing. Heavy framing
consists of framing members at least 6 inches in dimension (timber construction).
Long, unsupported areas between walls are spanned by built-up roof trusses.
Some field conditions require expedient framing techniques. For example—
· Light siding. Chicken wire and water-resistant bituminous paper
can be sandwiched to provide adequate temporary framing in temperate climates.
· Salvaged framing. Salvaged sheet metal, such as corrugated material
or gasoline cans, can be used as siding in the construction of emergency
· Local timber. Poles trimmed from saplings or bamboo can be constructed
into reasonably sound framing and may be secured with native vines if
· Wood-substitute framing. Adobe (soil, straw, and water—mixed
until spreadable) can be used to form walls, floors, and foundations.
A similar mixture may be used to form sundried bricks.
· Excavations. Proper excavation and simple log cribbing may also
be covered with sod and carefully drained to give adequate shelter.